About IAB Tech Lab
- 1 Blockchain Resources
- 1.1 Distributed Ledger Technologies
- 1.2 What is Blockchain
- 1.3 Public vs Private Blockchains
- 1.4 Blockchain Networks
- 1.4.1 Bitcoin
- 1.4.2 Ethereum
- 1.4.3 Ripple
- 1.4.4 Monero
- 1.4.5 Zcash
- 1.4.6 NEM
- 1.4.7 Litecoin
- 1.4.8 Bitcoin Cash
- 1.4.9 Hyperledger
- 1.4.10 Quorum
- 1.4.11 Dash
- 1.4.12 Stellar (Lumens)
- 1.4.13 Corda: DLT for Financial Services
- 1.4.14 Nano (Formerly Raiblocks)
- 1.4.15 IOTA
- 1.4.16 EOS
- 1.4.17 Cosmos
- 1.4.18 Hashgraph
- 1.5 Open Source Projects in Digital Advertising
- 1.6 Key Concepts and Technology
This page is intended to provide resources and information for understanding and learning about blockchain technology and its application to digital advertising. This page has been seeded with curated content from the [IAB Tech Lab Blockchain Working Group]https://iabtechlab.com/working-groups/blockchain-working-group/ whose goal (one of many)sto educate the industry about blockchain technology. This resources page contains information about basic concepts, technology components, architecture, terms and definitions used in blockchain as well as the ecosystem and industry projects.
This wiki page is open to any contributor wanting to suggest or update content relevant to the available sections, and it should be considered an open space for industry knowledge share. IAB Tech Lab does not intend to promote any product or services over another within this resource, and we recommend each company research and evaluate which products and services work best for their own organization.
Distributed Ledger Technologies
Distributed ledger technology, being a precursor to blockchain technology, is a great starting point to learn about the technology core concepts. A distributed ledger (also called a shared ledger or distributed ledger technology, DLT) is a consensus of replicated, shared, and synchronized digital data geographically spread across multiple sites, countries, or institutions. There is no central administrator or centralized data storage.
This article explains different types of databases and how distributed ledgers are different: https://medium.com/@sbmeunier/blockchain-technology-a-very-special-kind-of-distributed-database-e63d00781118
This is a quick guide to understand the difference between decentralized ledger technology and blockchain https://themerkle.com/distributed-ledger-technology-vs-blockchain-technology/
Here is a deeper dive into what DLT is and how it relates to blockchain http://documents.worldbank.org/curated/en/177911513714062215/pdf/122140-WP-PUBLIC-Distributed-Ledger-Technology-and-Blockchain-Fintech-Notes.pdf
What is Blockchain
The word blockchain was originally used to describe the technology used in the distributed ledger of Bitcoin. Essentially, it is a hash-like data structure. The below resources are great introductions to blockchain and most of them also explain Bitcoin as it remains the poster child of blockchain technology.
What is blockchain?: https://coincenter.org/entry/what-is-blockchain-anyway
Simple definitions and a primer on blockchain technology: https://www.cbinsights.com/research/what-is-blockchain-technology/
Primer on blockchain technology and how it can impact marketing https://www.aaaa.org/blockchain-technology-marketing-value-digital-permanence/
For the more technically inclined, this draft report from the National Institute of Standards and Technology provides an in-depth technical description of blockchain. https://csrc.nist.gov/CSRC/media/Publications/nistir/8202/draft/documents/nistir8202-draft.pdf
How Ethereum blockchain works: https://medium.com/@preethikasireddy/how-does-ethereum-work-anyway-22d1df506369
Public vs Private Blockchains
Blockchains can be private i.e. some entities control the entry of network participants,or public, where entry is uncensored. And there are hybrid models where joining and read access is public, but control is limited i.e. only a set of selected nodes can write or must sign a block for consensus
Is Bitcoin different than Blockchain? https://coincenter.org/entry/is-blockchain-different-than-bitcoin
A bitcoin fork with private payments using zero knowledge proofs. https://z.cash/
There is no whitepaper for Litecoin as its protocol is very close to Bitcoin, but here are some basic, informative links:
Whitepaper: Same as Bitcoin (https://bitcoin.org/bitcoin.pdf). Biggest difference to date is dynamic block sizes
Sawtooth: for IoT and scale : https://www.hyperledger.org/projects/sawtooth
Iroha: for Mobile: https://www.hyperledger.org/projects/iroha
Fabric: for Enterprise: https://www.hyperledger.org/projects/fabric
Burrow: for Ethereum and smart contracts: https://www.hyperledger.org/projects/hyperledger-burrow
Inde: for Identity and Privacy https://www.hyperledger.org/projects/hyperledger-indy
An enterprise-focused version of Ethereum. Enables zero knowledge asset transfers and other advanced features.
Corda: DLT for Financial Services
Nano (Formerly Raiblocks)
A feeless, instant, trustless, low-latency payment cryptocurrency with unlimited scalability. Focus is exclusively on payments.
A feeless, decentralized, scalable payment cryptocurrency aimed at transferring payments between IoT devices.
A decentralized smart contract platform which uses delegated proof of stake to periodically select a group of validators that declare new blocks.
A decentralized network of private and public blockchains which can interoperate through its hub. Provides a developer SDK with which to build consensus-aware applications.
Open Source Projects in Digital Advertising
Open source projects relevant to advertising and marketing industries:
adChain - https://github.com/AdChain - A token curated registry of publishers in which the public participates in the validation of suppliers by staking and earning tokens. The value of the token is derived from how well the public is curating the registry. The repo also includes a state channel implementation for impression tracking.
Lucidity (formerly KR8OS) - https://github.com/luciditytech - A system of computing and validating ad tracking data across the demand and supply chain. The repo includes a mobile attribution SDK and an Ethereum Plasma implementation for side-chain based proof-of-stake consensus.
Papyrus - https://github.com/papyrusglobal - A scalable protocol for digital advertising. The repo includes an integration kit and state channel layer implementation
qChain - https://github.com/Q-chain - A decentralized platform for digital advertising, paid surveys, and personal data management. The repo includes its token sale contract and its web backend system
Key Concepts and Technology
Blockchain networks require certain key technologies like cryptography as well as developers have developed new technology to support decentralized networks and applications.This section contains resources for learning more about some of the technologies being deployed by blockchain networks
Cryptography and digital signature
https://en.bitcoin.it/wiki/Elliptic_Curve_Digital_Signature_Algorithm (Elliptic Curve Digital Signature Algorithm or ECDSA is used by Bitcoin to ensure that funds can only be spent by their rightful owners)
This is how the data is structured in Bitcoin or Ethereum
Quick definition; https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Merkle_tree
For a deeper dive into Merkle tree: https://medium.com/@evankozliner/merkle-tree-introduction-4c44250e2da7
What is Mining?
Mining is a fundamental process that powers and maintains the blockchain networks. Learn more here: https://coincenter.org/entry/what-is-bitcoin-mining-and-why-is-it-necessary
Wallet is a way to store and manage cryptocurrency holdings without the need for full blockchain node capabilities: https://blockgeeks.com/guides/cryptocurrency-wallet-guide/
Smart Contracts represent rule-based logic in the form of computer code. This code, distributed on blockchain, is able to self-execute with little or no interaction from a third-party or intermediary.
Consensus is a requirement for blockchain networks to validate and register transactions, and it can be of different types. Here are some resources explaining consensus and outlining the different types:
What is Byzantine Fault Tolerance (BFT) and why is it important for consensus driven systems? https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Byzantine_fault_tolerance
dApps are a new kind of applications developed to interact with blockchain systems or distributed databases and can run on both a P2P network as well as a blockchain network.
A curated list of dApps on ethereum https://www.stateofthedapps.com/
Bluzelle for Ethereum https://bluzelle.com/#frontpre-video-area
BigChain : https://www.bigchaindb.com/
New languages to speak freely with new technologies !
Vyper - Python-like: https://github.com/ethereum/vyper
A summary of important new technologies ushering in supporting blockchain technology
Actors Profiles of important people who have shaped the Blockchain platforms today Satoshi Nakamoto Nick Szabo Hal Finney Vitalik Buterin Gavin Wood Joseph Lubin Vinay Gupta Brian Behlendorf Andreas Antonopoulos
Cryptocurrencies Ah! For all who want to also understand the dark side. Only then can you balance the force
This infographic provides a classification framework for tokens.
Use cases and Application The document provides a high-level overview of blockchain and describes several use cases in the advertising industry. https://www.iab.com/wp-content/uploads/2018/02/Blockchain_for_Video_Advertising_Publisher-Buyer_Use_Cases_2018-02.pdf - February 2018. Blockchain in Digital Advertising
Basic Attention Token (BAT) https://www.basicattentiontoken.org/ BAT is an open-source, decentralized digital advertising platform based on Ethereum. The Basic Attention Token digital advertising platform is comprised of various components, including a digital advertising exchange, attention measurement systems, analytics dashboards, and machine learning algorithms.
Lucidity (formerly KR8OS) https://lucidity.network Lucidity is a digital advertising protocol built upon the Ethereum blockchain. Lucidity’s goal is to bring greater transparency, consistency, and reliability to the digital advertising ecosystem through open validation of event data.
Koin (Kiip) http://kiip.me Koin is the governing B2B and B2C token (initially in the Kiip network, eventually open source) that leverages smart contracts for the orchestration of mobile media campaigns, but also rewards end users with a part of the token. Consumers can spend tokens on digital goods and services in-app or also on the products that the original brands are advertising.
Papyrus https://papyrus.global/ Papyrus is a decentralized programmatic value management platform aimed to radically improve the programmatic advertising stack to provide an efficient, transparent, and mutually beneficial environment for users, publishers, advertisers, and decentralized application (dApp) developers using blockchain architecture. It is an open source, scalable blockchain platform specifically designed to fight fraud traffic, brand safety issues, excessive middleman cuts, and absence of supply chain transparency.
Ternio https://ternio.io/ Ternio is a multifaceted blockchain network utilizing an internal blockchain, called Lexicon, based upon Hyperledger Fabric for immediate smart contracts and transactions of advertisements, a communication layer for ultra-fast data transfer, and Ternio blockchain (token) built off the Stellar (XLM).
Faktor https://www.faktor.io/ Faktor is a powerful platform for consumer centric tools for digital advertising
DATX https://www.datx.co/ Datx is a blockchain for programmatic advertising
uPort https://medium.com/uport Identity and user-centric data platform built in Ethereum.
Rebel AI https://rebelai.com Rebel AI prevents ad fraud using blockchain and encryption Legal resources N.B. the law regarding all aspects of blockchain technology implementations is nascent and shows just as much volatility as the crypto-markets themselves. As such, while the below serve as guideposts, they should not be taken as legal advice. Please consult an attorney at the time a legal analysis is needed or transaction performed. Licensing https://www.coindesk.com/coders-beware-licensing-issues-abound-ethereum-apps/ - December 2017 article by Matt Savare and John Wintermute. The article discusses high-level open source licensing issues with a particular emphasis on Ethereum.
https://github.com/LawDEX/LawDEX -GitHub repository for “Open Source” legal documents for coins. It has two good documents in it now (50 State Survey for Token Offerings and a Token Advisor Agreement)
Legal vs smart contract https://hbr.org/2017/01/the-truth-about-blockchain
https://www.globalbankingandfinance.com/get-smart-automating-business-agreements-with-blockchains-and-smart-contracts - January 2018 article by Matt Savare and Kurt Watkins. The article provides a high-level overview of Ethereum and smart contracts.
Government and Blockchain References to SEC guidance https://www.sec.gov/news/press-release/2017-131 https://www.sec.gov/news/public-statement/statement-clayton-2017-12-11 https://www.sec.gov/news/public-statement/statement-clayton-giancarlo-012518 https://www.sec.gov/news/testimony/testimony-virtual-currencies-oversight-role-us-securities-and-exchange-commission https://www.coinbase.com/legal/securities-law-framework.pdf
https://airtable.com/shreIXQjzluCxam37/tbl7qVDFKKiEcFFrc: blockchain projects in governments worldwide and state by state in the US.